What is Rectal Prolapse?
It is a condition is which last part of the large intestine i.e. rectum drops down or comes out of the anus.
There are three types of rectal prolapses viz. internal prolapse, partial prolapse and complete prolapsed.
In internal prolapsed, rectum starts to drop but hasn’t yet come out through the anus. While when part of rectum slips through anus it is known as partial prolapsed. And in extreme conditions i.e. in complete prolapsed entire rectum slips out of the anus.
What causes a Rectal Prolapse?
The major cause of rectal prolapsed is chronic constipation or diarrhea. Also long time habit of straining during defecation or excretion may cause prolapsed.
Normal or vaginal pregnancy may lead to rectal prolapsed.
Weakening of anus muscles i.e. anus sphincter due to old age may trigger rectal prolapsed.
It may happen due to nerve damage especially in the pelvic region, spine injury or surgery done in the pelvic region.
Severe and frequent coughing may cause rectal prolapsed.
In some cases, it is occurred due to neurological ailments like multiple sclerosis, spinal cord tumors.
What are symptoms of rectal prolapse?
In earlier stages, patients may feel some bulge near anal area while defecating.
Leaking blood or poop from the anus.
Presence of red mass outside the anus.
Pain in rectum or anus.
Bleeding from rectum.
How a rectal prolapse surgery or rectopexy is done?
Surgery begins with giving patient general anesthesia which makes him completely unconscious during the surgery.
Four Incisions of 5-10 mm diameter are made in the abdominal wall.
Through these incisions a special tube viz. cannula is inserted. Through cannula, Carbon Dioxide is pumped into the abdomen causing it to inflate. This inflated abdomen helps the surgeon to reach the location of rectum and gives space to perform surgery.
The surgeon carefully reaches to the rectum, frees it from surrounding organs and gently pulls up to restore it to the normal position inside the pelvis. After this rectum is stitched to secure its position. In some cases, special mesh is placed to keep rectum in the proper position.
Finally, incisions are cleaned, closed and dressed.